Nigeria — Visas and Vaccinations
For visitors from USA, Canada, Britain, Australia, New Zealand, and most other all countries, a visa is required to enter Nigeria for tourist purposes. A 90-day tourist visa is available from the nearest Nigerian Embassy in your home country; allow up to ten days for it to be processed. The embassy will charge a fee, and you also need to provide them with two recent passport-sized photos, and proof of your accommodation booking for the entirety of your stay in Nigeria. You must also have at least six months validity on your passport. You are also able to gain a 180-day multiple entry visa for about double the price, although you will need to provide the embassy with a bank statement showing proof of sufficient funds for your stay in Nigeria.
Health and Safety
Malaria is very prevalent in Nigeria, so a course of preventative medicine should be sought and taken four to six weeks before travelling to the country. Yellow fever is also a risk in Nigeria, and a certificate is required to enter the country. You should seek a vaccine and the appropriate certificate eight weeks before you travel. It is recommended that you also seek the following routine vaccinations before you travel: hepatitis A and B, diphtheria, MMR, polio, rabies, and tetanus.
Only basic and limited medical facilities are available in Nigeria in comparison to Western standards. You should ensure that you always have adequate health insurance coverage before traveling to Nigeria.
Some violent street crime such as muggings, kidnappings, and car-jackings, occur in the south of the country, including in the city of Lagos. Most attacks happen after 10 p.m. so always avoid road travel or walking around at night time.
The President of Nigeria declared a state of emergency in 15 areas of the country on December 31, 2011. This remains in effect for areas in the states of Borno, Niger, Plateau, and Yobe. The US government warns against avoiding all travel to these areas. You should always check national travel warnings issued by the US State Department at: http://travel.state.gov/travel/cispatw/tw/tw_1764.html.
During the wet season, between June and October, Nigeria experiences heavy rains and flash flooding. Water-borne diseases are also a greater threat during the wet season. Many regions around the Niger River delta should be avoided during this time, as heavy rain can lead to widespread disruption and an increase in water-borne diseases. You should always check weather warnings if visiting these areas during this time.