As entry to Vatican City is via Rome, Italian immigration requirements must be fulfilled in order to access the Papal state, with no specific requirements for entry into public-accessible areas of Vatican City from Rome. Italy is party to the Schengen Agreement so nationals of other Schengen countries, as well as nationals of non-Schengen EU countries, can enter with just their national ID card. US and Canadian visitors need a passport and are typically granted a 90-day, visa-free stay within a 180-day period in the Schengen zone.
Health and Safety
Italy handles the detention and prosecution of criminal suspects who are apprehended in Vatican City on request by the Holy See. However, crime isn’t a major issue here as security is high. Visitors should safeguard themselves against pick pocketing by keeping a close eye on their belongings. Pickpockets are a particular problem on the tourist-frequented transport routes in Rome which lead to the Vatican.
There are no public hospitals in Vatican City so those needing medical attention need to be transferred to a hospital in Rome. While medical care in Rome is of a high quality, it is expensive so visitors are strongly advised to take out comprehensive travel or medical insurance to cover for any unforeseen eventualities. Standard vaccinations should be up to date prior to travel.